Phil La Duke's Blog

Fresh perspectives on safety and Performance Improvement

Six Simple Ways to Change Your Life

by Phil La Duke

Years ago I worked in talent development for one of the largest faith-based healthcare systems in the United States. I left it to pursue other career goals but it never left me, at least not completely. The system was founded when two religious orders merged after discovering that the youngest among the two orders was 78 years old. They came together to preserve a way of life that had existed over 500 years. Sure it ran hospitals, but more important was the spiritual community that it had created. Faced with extinction it set about an elaborate plan for turning over its legacy to the laity. I always took that very seriously. For me it wasn’t about organizational development or training, although these were certainly a big part of my job, rather it was about preserving a way of life.
Some time ago I shared the podium at the Canadian Society of Safety Engineers with an anthropologist and National Geographic photographer who talked about cultural extinction (which interestingly enough, he attributed to the growth of the written word). According to him, cultures are going extinct at a far faster rate than animals; it’s scary really, thousands of years of knowledge lost as cultures die daily. I was determined that I would do everything in my power to save this one culture to which I had been entrusted.
I wasn’t the only one so entrusted; there were scores of professionals whose primary jobs were to preserve the mission, culture, and vision of the consolidated order. One of the tools they had for preserving the culture was the Guiding Behaviors (note to the grammar vigilantes: I know this sounds like number disagreement but the Guiding Behaviors is considered one tool). As I reflected this morning, as I do every morning, on these behaviors it occurred to me that these would serve the safety professionals as much as anyone else. I have changed the wording of some of these to make them less specific to healthcare, but I doubt the surviving members of the orders will mind too much.

“We support each other in service”
The first of the behaviors is “we support each other in service” what better way for a safety professional to sum up his or her job? We don’t really save lives—not the way doctors or nurses do anyway—but we can always support people in making better decisions and while not directly saving lives influencing people to save their own lives or the lives of a coworker.

“We communicate openly and honestly, respectfully, and directly”
I’ve written volumes about the importance of open and honest communication. I still believe that the only path for safety professionals to get respect is by truly respecting the people and organizations they serve. It’s disappointing how many safety professionals disparage the people they are charged with protecting. People who feel respected tend to respond respectfully. We must always strive, not only to be truthful, but truly honest and not just with the people we serve but with ourselves as well. And let us never confuse hurtful speech with honesty. Before speaking we should ask ourselves, “is what I want to say true? Is it helpful? Is it intended to help someone or merely to make ourselves feel better? And finally, is it necessary?” if all of these things aren’t true then maybe we should just keep it to ourselves.

“We are fully present”
Perhaps the behavior I struggle with the most is “we are fully present”. Being fully present means that you keep your mind on the job—no multitasking, no distractions, no dreaming about the weekend. While it’s easy to see how staying fully present on the job would greatly benefit most workers—distraction on the job can be deadly—we also need to be fully present as safety professionals. This means really participating in meetings and really listening (not just waiting to talk) and working with others to accomplish things. Keeping your head in the game every minute of every day is really tough and if you try to do it you will come home exhausted.
“We are all accountable”
“We are all accountable” means more than holding others accountable, although that is certainly a part of it. We also must strive to hold ourselves accountable. Each day we must ask ourselves if we earned our pay. Did we make a positive impact in people’s lives, not just in the context of safety, but did we make the workplace (and the world) a more pleasant place? Did we really bring our “A” game or did we merely phone it in? We must also remember that we have a duty to be just in holding others accountable. We do not stand in judgment above those we serve, but we owe it to the organization and to the entire population to hold people answerable—both positively and negatively,
“We trust and assume goodness in intentions”
People screw with our work, our day, and our heads on a daily basis. But trusting and assuming goodness in intentions has taught me one of the most powerful lessons of my life: we screw with our own work, our own day, and our own heads far more often than anyone else ever could. They say that forgiveness is a gift we give ourselves and it begins by never taking slight in the first place. Instead of assuming that the Operations leadership is throwing us under the bus we should ask the person some questions. Most often we will find that because we assume that the person meant us no harm and was probably completely unaware of the issues he or she was creating for us. Assuming goodness in intentions brings a person real peace and strengthens relationships. There is a saying that if you keep meeting jerks all day long the jerk is you. I say that if you assume goodness of intention in all you meet you will live in a world like you could never imagine. Send out good stimuli and you receive good responses.
“We are continuous learners”
Too often we strive to teach. We are, after all, the experts in safety and what good is that expertise unless we share it with the organization? We get sad and frustrated when people don’t want to listen to what we have to say. But when we are continuous learners, when we focus not on what we can teach others, but what we can learn from them, we find that we end up teaching other so much more of value than if we were to just spout facts at them. Continuous learning involves a lot of introspection—we have to examine our mistakes and try hard to understand why things went wrong and what we can do to fix things them.
The World Loves a Hypocrite
While I try to live by these simple six statements I don’t always succeed; in fact I fail a lot. But the beauty of these guiding behaviors is that they are things to which I aspire. So now I charge you to share these aspirations with me. Try doing these six things for a week. You may fail, but remember in some cases success comes, not in the outcome, but in the attempt.

Filed under: Behavior Based Safety, Hazard Management, Just Culture, Performance Improvement, Phil La Duke, Worker Safety, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

The Madness Of Measuring Nothing


By Phil La Duke

These days’ organizations live and die by measurements. It seems that no matter where we work we are confronted with the dreaded balanced score card and so we are tasked with measuring “safety”. I’ve said for a long time, “the absence of injuries does not denote the presence of safety” and zero injuries doesn’t tell us a heck of a lot about the risk of injuries within a given population.

The traditional measures of safety, i.e. injuries or days away or restricted time, don’t help us predict the likelihood of future performance, and yet that is the best we seem able to come up with. We play at leading indicators like near miss reporting (as somehow indicating the level of participation of workers in safety) but even these measurements are fraught with statistical noise that can lead us to conclusions not in evidence; so many of our indicators mislead us that one has to wonder if there is any value in them at all.

Recently I was asked to address a meeting of the senior leaders of a multi-national manufacturer and I was asked what some good predictive measures would be for safety. I was pressed for time and I’m afraid I didn’t have the luxury of a prolonged discussion on metrics (my topic was Creating A Culture Of Safety Excellence). So given the fervor set in motion from my last three posts I thought I would add a bit of metaphorical fuel to the fire and lay out for professional debate, what I see as some good ways for correlating business measures to future performance in safety.

Risk Factor #1: Worker Stress and Distraction

Worker stress has a profound impact not only on human error, but on risk taking, and worker’s health as well.  Highly stressed workers are distracted and distraction leads to mistakes which lead to injuries.  Some measures that I think directly correlate to worker stress are:

  • Worker absenteeism.  Absenteeism rates are indicators of both worker stress and worker competence. Research has shown that stressed workers tend to miss more work, and when a worker misses work, his or her job is done by someone less skilled, less practiced at the job, and therefore more likely to deviate from the standard.  In other words, the worker stuck doing the job is at greater risk of injury than the worker whose muscle memory is completing many of the tasks by rote.  Of course this isn’t universally the case, but it is true often enough to correlate, and when it comes to prediction, correlation is the best we’ve got.
  • Number of calls to employee assistance programs.  When we talk about worker distraction, we tend to think in terms of distractions borne in the workplace.  Workers who are worried about financial problems, divorce, or other “off-hours” problems while working face the same dangers as those distracted by work issues.  The number of calls to EAP lines can provide a good idea of how much distraction is in the workplace which correlates to human error, behavioral drift, lapses in judgement and ultimately  workplace injuries.
  • Worker turnover.  Employee turn over creates risk in much the same way absenteeism does: it introduces greater variation into our work processes which in increases the risk of injuries.  The greater the worker turnover rates the higher the risk of injuries as newer, less competent and skilled workers replace higher performing, more experienced workers.
  • Engagement survey scores. Engaged workers tend to do things because these things are the right thing to do.  The lower the level of employee engagement the higher the risk of worker injuries.

In all these cases we have to remember that we seldom have a perfect correlation (a case where everytime factor A is true factor B is also true) and even in those rare cases where there is a perfect correlation such a condition does not mean that there is a cause and effect relationship between two factors.  But since we are looking at the measurement’s predictive value there is always a margin for error, statistical anomolies and statistical outliers.  If we had a perfect way of predicting exactly where and when an injury would occur we would be using it. 

Risk Factor #2: Worker Incompetence

When we talk about worker incompetence, we’re not talking about the nincompoop  who doesn’t seem able to do even the most rudimentary task without screwing things up, rather, we are talking about the skill level at which a worker is able to perform his or her job.

There is a strong correlation between level of mastery at which a worker performs the tasks associated with his or her job and the risk of injuries.  To that end these measurements are appropriate and predictive:

  • Required training % complete. Assuming that we require training because it is necessary to do one’s job, the lack of this training would indicate process variability.  Tracking the percentage of training provides us with a glimpse of how much risk a worker faces of being injured because he or she performed a task improperly.  The greater the percentage of people who have completed training the lower the risk of injury because of a gap in essential skills.
  • % of licenses and certificate expired. Just as the percentage of required training that is complete provides us with an understanding of approximately how many people are likely working out of process (it’s tough to do the job right simply by guessing) so too does the percentage of workers who are working despite having expired licenses and certificates.
  • Time to complete required training.  The longer it takes to complete required training the longer a worker is exposed to workplace risk associated with a skills gape.
  • Worker performance appraisal scores. This particular measure is tricky—it assumes that the worker appraisals are fair assessments of the worker’s ability to accurately complete tasks and do the job. Assuming that there is a robust worker performance appraisal assessment the lower scored individuals should be at greater risk that those who are peforming at higher levels. 

Risk Factor #3: Leader Incompetence.

Workers generally perform in ways for which they are rewarded and eschew behaviors for which they are punished. Low-performing leaders often exacerbate safety issues by behaving inappropriately in their interactions with workers. Some measures that I think directly correlate to leadership competency are:

  • 360 Reviews. 360 Reviews, that is, reviews where a leader’s team members, boss, and peers all contribute to the review, are often excellent indicators of how well a leader interacts with his or her team. The weaker the leader the higher the risk of process variation and hence a rise in the risk of injuries.
  • Leader performance review.  Leaders who perform poorly are generally allowing more variation into the work area the higher the performance of the leader the less likely workers will be harmed on his or her watch. It’s important to note that the leader’s performance review will most likely include things like the productivity of his or her team, general performance in things like cost, quality, and efficiency, in other words, things that will either directly or indirectly impact the risk of injuries.
  • Worker morale.  Of course worker morale can be effected by a host of things unrelated to the leader, but worker morale is heavily influenced by the performance of the leader.  Workers suffering from poor morale generally perform at lower levels which fall outside the processes control limits.  The worse the morale the higher the risk of variation and ultimately injuries.
  • % of safety reviews completed on time. I am not a fan of “behavioral observations”; I’ve always felt the time watching someone work could be better spent taking a more holistic view of worker safety by reviewing the risk conditions (procedural, physical, or behavioral).  That having been said, it is important that leaders conduct routine and repeated inspections of the workplace to identify hazards.  The percent of safety reviews/tours/inspections/observations completed on time is a, at least ostensibly, an indicator of the time to which workers are exposed to hazards.
  • % or performance reviews completed on time.  Completing performance reviews on time isn’t just about making employees feel good, it is also about assessing competency.  The more reviews that are completed on time, the more skills and performance gaps are identified in a timely manner.
  • % Attendance at safety meetings.  The percentage of safety meetings that a leader attends provides a good insight into the level of priority on which the leader places on safety. 

Risk Factor #5: Process Capability

Process variability creates risk; to the product, to the equipment, and to the workers.  The frequency and duration of non-standard or out of process work is a good predictive indicator of risk of injury.  Good measures of process capability (relative to safety) are:

  • % of nonstandard work.  Statistically speaking nonstandard work tends to be more dangerous and the injuries associated with nonstandard work tend to be more lethal than its standard counterpart.  The percentage of work that is nonstandard can indicate a substantial bump in risk associated with any operation.
  • % of jobs with completed JSAs.  A complete and current Job Safety Analysis (JSA) is crucial for the safe execution of work, yet I don’t know any company that has 100% of it’s jobs with JSAs, and many companies don’t have a good track record of keeping the JSA’s current with the standard operating procedure. Understanding the percentage of your tasks have good and current JSAs is a good predictor of future risk (the higher the percentage the lower the risk).
  • % of jobs with Standard Work Instructions. Personally, I prefer Standard Work Instructions (SWI) to JSAs (a good SWI should address all the safety concerns of a job), but SWIs suffer from the same problems that I discussed regarding JSAs above.
  • % behind in production.  I still have nightmares about my days working an assembly line and falling “in the hole” screams of “man in the hole” booming above the cacophony of hand tools, presses, and industrial vehicles still give me chills.  Whenever ever workers are struggling to catch up because they are behind in production the risk of injuries rises.
  • % parts shortages.  When there are part shortages (or tools shortages, or materials shortages, or labor shortages for those of you who work outside manufacturing) workers are forced to work outside the standard process.  This is incredibly dangerous because the standard process is designed with protections against injuries embedded in the tasks.  When a worker is working outside the process the organization is relying on luck to protect them.

Risk Factor #6: Worker Engagement In Safety

We’ve discussed worker engagement in a broad sense, but I think it is important enough to look at worker engagement specific to safety.  Engaged workers will work safely for no more reward than because working safely is the right thing to do.  Worker engagement in safety can be measured by:

  • Number of reported near misses.  Some will argue, correctly, that near misses are lagging indicators, but whether or not a worker choses to report a near miss correlates to the level of worker engagement in the safety process. This meaurement, admittedly, is difficult to get accurately.  Since we don’t know the total actual number of near misses we can’t say with certainty whether the current level of reporting is a high or low percentage.  Even so, the number of workers who report, even more so than the raw numbers of near misses, can provide a good glimpse into the level of importance workers place on safety.
  • Number improvement suggestions.  Workers who take an interest in improving the organization are generally interested in finding and eliminating failure modes, which will include those failure modes that will ultimately place workers at risk of injury.  The greater the number of suggestions the lower the risk.
  • Participation in continuous improvement workshops.  Elimanating variation, risk, and hazards are part and parcel of the continous improvement process so it should surprise no one that the level of participation in these activities correlate to the level of risk.
  • Number of worker grievances.  Worker grievances shed valuable light in to many of the other risk factors identified here and generally the greater the number of grievances the higher the level of risk of injuries.
  • Number of disciplinary actions for safety violations. The number of disciplinary actions for safet violations are indicative of two things: the number of unsafe acts being committed and the extent to which these incidents are taken serioiusly.

Of course one has to be careful in designing and managing these measurements to avoid unintended consequences (for example, one could easily reduce the number of disciplinary actions by not applying appropriate discipline, or one could raise worker performance evaluation simply through “score inflation” but the risk of these unintended consequences can be reduced by solid management practices and random sampling audits.

The Imperfection Of Predictive Measures

To some extent we can never have a perfect set of measures.  In many ways it’s like predicting the weather, since we are talking about probability there is always a chance that the organization will beat the odds.  In fact, there isn’t one of these measures that I couldn’t construct a convincing argument against.  What’s important is to use those of these measures that make sense and use them in conjunction with each other.  One correlation does not a pattern make, but when we look at multiple areas of risk and analyze them in a holistic context we can find a more useful way to measure safety than counting bodies and broken bones.



Filed under: Worker Safety, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

You Can’t Test Safety Competency With Tests Your Crappy Tests


by Phil La Duke

If you’re hoping to ensure that the people taking your safety training have learned the material , then you probably use a posttest (a test given at the end of the session), and if you wrote this test it probably sucks. I used to write tests for a living and I am continually disgusted by what passes for an evaluative instrument—even those that have been created by professional trainers. The problem stems from the fact that most of us grew up taking really poorly designed tests and when tasked with creating a test of our own we tend to emulate what we know.

Is it a problem that our tests suck? Yes (and to those of you who think my use of the word “suck” is crude, in poor taste, or unprofessional I say got straight to hell—when you start creating tests that don’t suck, I’ll clean up my act, until then…well you get the picture). Using a poorly constructed test is worse than using no test at all because it takes time to build, complete, score, and record it while adding no real value.

I should point out that most of you who create truly excremental tests (and I have seen many college professors who fall into this category) think that your tests rock it (they don’t). So what exactly is wrong with these tests? I’m glad you asked.

  1. Questions that Don’t Match      the Course Objectives. Each question should correspond to one (and      only one) of your course objectives. You identified the things you wanted      people to learn in your objectives so asking questions about anything else      is just noise. People do (and should) cue in on the topics in the course      that relate to the objectives and tend to place a lower priority on the      trivia (that which doesn’t match up to an objective.)
  2. No Pretest. Pre- and posttests are a      matched set. The pretest establishes baseline knowledge. If a person can      pass the pretest without any instruction he or she doesn’t really need the      training (and in mandated regulatory training you fill find that this is      often the case, unfortunately the law says we have to provide them      training anyway.) Pretests should be the exact same questions as the      posttest (to ensure an apples-to-apples comparison between the learner’s      skills and knowledge before and after the training. Pre- and posttest      questions should be in a different order and should also mix the order of      the distractors.
  3. True-or-False Questions. True-or-False questions are      popular because ostensibly they’re easy to write. Unfortunately, good      true-or-false questions are actually fairly difficult to construct. Even      well-constructed true-or-false questions shouldn’t be used because while      people believe that a person has a 50:50 shot at guess correctly, when, in      fact, experts tell us that the chance of guessing correctly is much higher      (around 66% the last time I looked it up). The problem is that many      well-constructed true-or-false questions provide grammatical clues that      allow the reader to guess correctly. These clues are usually in the form      of absolutes (must, always, most, least, etc.) and even if they don’t tip      off the reader, these types of questions tend to measure reading      comprehension skills far more than the participants’ grasp of the      material.
  4. Poorly-Written      Multiple-Choice Questions. Some people smugly call multiple-choice      questions “multiple-guess” questions. Do me a favor, next time someone      tries to get cute by saying “multiple-guess” crack them a good one in the      mouth with the back of your hand; unless there are social consequences for      our actions people will never learn manners. Multiple-choice questions are      (along with matching or fill in the blank) the best kind of questions to      ask, provided you construct them correctly. When writing a multiple choice      question remember these tips:
    1. The key to effective       multiple-choice questions lies in the distractors (the possible answers       that aren’t correct). Eighty percent of the poorly written multiple       choice questions have really, REALLY bad distractors that allow the       person completing the test to use the process of elimination to arrive at       the correct answer. That works something like this:

The capital of France is:

a) North Dakota

b) In Spain

c) Paris

d) All of the above

These distractors are horrible because, a) North Dakota is impossible since a U.S. State cannot be the capital city of a European country, b) is similarly absurd because the capital of France is not likely to be in Spain, and d) is absolutely wrong because North Dakota is not in Spain. (Note: never use distractors like all of the above, none of the above, or a) and c). A multiple-choice question should have only one correct answer). Once we eliminate all the stupid distractors we are left only with Paris. A better question is:

The capital of France is:

a) Cannes

b) Versailles

c) Paris

d) I don’t know.

You may be put off by the distractor, d) I don’t know, but this is a key to writing a good multiple-choice question. People will tend to guess anyway, but it gives them an out, and you will occasionally be pleasantly surprised by the person who bravely and honestly answers “I don’t know”. The added benefit of the “I don’t know option” allows the instructor to spend more time with participants who clearly aren’t achieving a learning objective.

  1. Too Few/Many Questions. I have found the sweet      spot for the number of test questions is 20-25. (Frankly I seldom go over      or under 20 questions,) So assuming you have a course with five objectives      (and what the hell is wrong with you if you have more than five?) and you      ask four or five questions on each objective your test should have 20 to      25. But there’s more than simple multiplication here, less than 20      questions produces a population that is too small to make valid statistic      inferences and more than 25 becomes unwieldy, taking too long to complete      and score.
  2. Lack of test validation. There are scientific      methods for assessing the validity of tests, but you don’t have to go to      that extreme to ensure that your tests are valid instruments. There is a      simple test of test validity that I use: first, give the test to someone      who doesn’t know the material (ideally someone who is good at taking      tests). If that person is able to earn a passing score than the test is      too easy. Next give the test (assuming the first person didn’t pass) to a      subject matter expert; if the expert can’t get at least 90% than the test      is probably too difficult, or just poorly written (believe it or not,      sometimes one or more of our distractors might be technically correct      because of the way we worded it.

I know that this entry will largely fall on deaf ears (as I’ve said, I’ve met seasoned learning professionals that can’t write a decent test to save their lives) but if only one of you will through away the tripe you’ve been using to ensure that workers have achieved their learning objectives relative to safety, I will be satisfied with my meager success in this area.

There is more….but this is enough.

Filed under: Training & Safety, Worker Safety, ,

What Every Operation Leader Should Know About Safety



 By Phil LaDuke

Every day I hear another safety professional bemoan the fact that Operations (or leadership) doesn’t support safety.  It’s a tired bleat from whiners who should know that I would have no patience for it.  I generally turn the conversation around and ask flat out what they have done to educate operations leaders on safety and they begin to drone on and on about incident rates and lost work days and whatever the latest fad in safety of which they happen to currently be enamored. As safety professionals we have to drive these eunuchs from our chosen field with knotted chords and send them scampering like shocked money changers.

It seems that every month or so I get a wild hair up my small intestine and advocate throwing a beating into some poor schmoo who’s trying to make a buck.  Maybe that’s unfair, but who cares, I care not one whit about fair and when someone is trying to make a buck by undermining the foundation of a profession that, for all its warts,  is ostensibly about keeping people alive long enough to toil another day. So for those of you who are reading this in hopes of yet another viscous attack against the ugly brutes schilling snake oil, sorry; you will be disappointed, perhaps on several levels.

But then I digress.  The target of this week’s blog is the self-castrated safety professional who simpers and whelps about the grave injustice of being saddled with a clueless Operations managers who just don’t get it when it comes to safety.  I freely accept that there are many Operations folks who don’t get safety, but why is that? We’ve made the topic of worker safety about as interesting as the farm report.  You want to shut down the conversation with the hyper caffeinated goofball seated next to you on a plane? You don’t tell them you sell insurance, or that you’re a realtor (when did real estate agents decide that their chosen profession needed to be pronounced real TORE instead of realter? Call it what you want your still selling real estate; case closed) No to strangle the conversation in its infancy you simply need to say, “I work in worker safety, what do YOU do?” The conversation will die quicker than if you said you enjoy watching snuff films.

Let us assume that you’re able to truly able to have a frank conversation with Operations management about worker safety, what would you say, what are the five things you would want  every Operations leader know about safety? First of all, if you need to have this conversation if you hold out any hope of making things better, and some of you, I’m convinced, don’t want that. Many of you are only content to be malcontents, to be the pitiful victims who are under appreciated; those of you who work so hard and receive so little reward.

For my part, here are the five things that every Operations manager should know:

  1. Injuries Aren’t Unavoidable.  Generally speaking there is a correlation between a tightly controlled process that has little variation and a safe workplace.  When people get hurt it’s obviously out of process, as your process (unless it was designed by the Marquis de Sadd) wasn’t designed to deliberately injure workers. So if a leader strives to make sure that people work within process (including things like following safety processes and procedures) they will tend to have less injuries.
  2. Injuries Are Inefficient and Cost A Lot.  When people get hurt it shuts or slows everything down; everything, and not just at the time of the injury sometimes for weeks or months afterward and far beyond the confines of the area in which the worker was hurt.  Depending on how gruesome the injury (or Heaven forbid a fatality) the witnesses may be forever shaken by what they’ve seen, some may not be able to return to work ever (and this isn’t me being melodramatic, I’ve seen strong men unable to cope—and therefore work—-because they saw a friend pulped and mangled before his or her agonizing death on a dirty factory floor.) Even those who didn’t witness the event first hand are shaken and the macabre cacophony that travels through the organization like ball lightening is sometimes far worse in its imaginings of the scene the bloody reality. It’s tough to give work your all when you wonder if you will be the next to shuffle this mortal coil in the name of building widgets. Okay so maybe I am being melodramatic, but what’s a bit of melodrama between us safety guys?  The efficiency goes on and on through investigations internal, corporate, and criminal.  It takes a lot of time to kill or cripple a worker, given all the paperwork and associated loss of production and time is, after all, money.  So when the final cost of carnage hit the bottom line it hardly seems worth it.
  3. 3.    If It Looks Dangerous It Is; So Shut It Down. Too often people assume that because the boss (whether it be the team leader or the CEO) allows an activity it must at a minimum be “safe enough”.  In a lot of those cases the boss is counting on the worker to make a judgment call and to keep him/herself out of harm’s way.  So on it goes with both parties counting on the other to prevent the accident that will kill the worker. 
  4. 4.    Giving People Credit For “a Little Common Sense” Is like Giving Them Credit FHaving Super Powers.  We could argue whether or not common sense exist ad nauseum and all that would come of it would be that eventually I would want to back hand you right in the mouth; probably more than once.  The bottom line is that whether or not you believe common sense exists to any great extent (it doesn’t) trusting it to keep people from doing something they never foresaw or intended (i.e. injuring themselves or others) is a pretty stupid way to run a business.
  5. 5.    Work is Intrinsically Unsafe and the Only Way to Make It A Bit Safer Is to Stay Actively Involved. All jobs carry with them some risk of injury so leaders have to be mindful of the risks endemic to a job and, yes, actively work to reducing the risks to the lowest practicable level.  We can pretend that people don’t commit errors, make bad decisions, take risks, behave recklessly, and generally do stupid things.  We can act as if we live in a utopia where machines don’t malfunction, tools don’t wear out, and equipment never fails.  We can do these things but when we do we do nothing to reduce the risks and we count on luck to protect people.  Lucky people win lotteries, date people way more attractive that any sense of justice would allow, and find hundred dollar bills on the ground. LUCKY PEOPLE DON’T NARROWLY ESCAPE DYING ON THE JOB.      

Are these the right five? Are the really ten? Fifty? A thousand? Maybe you have others you think they should know, but if you think they need to know about how hard your job is, how to calculate Incident Rates or how to conduct a JSA I would put it to you that you’re probably as dumb as the Operations leader thinks you are; maybe more even.

Filed under: culture change, Just Culture, Phil La Duke, risk management, Safety, Safety Culture, Worker Safety

Legitimizing Risk

goldfish jumping out of the water

By Phil La Duke

Several days ago the United States celebrated the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the first step toward its becoming a sovereign nation.  It was an event marked in the state of Michigan by the irresponsible and dangerous use of fireworks by drunken amateurs with no training.  Michigan shortsightedly recently repealed a decades long ban on these types of explosives.  Michigan also recently rescinded a requirement that motorcyclists wear helmets while riding.  These two important laws designed to protect people are just the most recent erosion of public support for safety.  I’ve written at length about the alarming shift in public opinion toward the belief that at home or at work we have gone overboard with safety, so I won’t repeat myself.  Instead, I thought I would focus on how legalization (whether in the traditional legal sense or in the relaxation of work rules) endorses and legitimizes unsafe practices—if something is allowed most people assume that it’s safe.

In a similar vein, if we have rules and regulations to which we turn a blind eye we are effectively sending the message that the rules don’t matter; that they don’t really protect us, they are just a means to keep order in the workplace.  This further reinforces the idea that disregarding a safety regulation isn’t really putting anyone in harm’s way. When people believe an activity is is safe they are more likely to take risks while engaging in said activity.  If we believe that a shortcut puts us at less risk than it in fact does, we sharply increase both the probability (if you believe that the amount of interaction increases the probability) and (perhaps) the severity of the injury (if for instance, emergency response equipment is not maintained, or if the requirements for drills are ignored).

My intent is not to wax political, in broad strokes I don’t care if the law requires helmets  or outlaws fireworks, but the legitimization of  hazards seems, at least to me, to be a growing problem—both internal to the workplace and external to it.  As companies pull themselves out of the economic hole it has been easy to let maintenance issues accumulate.  This in itself isn’t a bad thing; I’ve said for ages that the safest companies are those who went out of business because they were foolish with their spending and unable to prioritize expenditures.  But I’ve seen a rise in complacency and a lack of operational discipline that puts lives and livelihoods at risk.

Familiarity Breeds Contempt

As workers and companies become more comfortable with hazards the hazards cease to motivate them to take reasonable care.  Why is it now necessary to ensure that industrial vehicles are checked for defects and taken out of service and repaired when it was no big deal a year ago, after all, nobody has been hurt in all that time?  The fact that companies were forced to take risks (putting off maintenance, removing unsafe tools and equipment from service, letting training slide longer than one should, etc.) and suffered no meaningful consequences (governmental budget cuts have meant that, for many locations, surprise visits from regulators—and their subsequent findings—have been exceedingly rare) has left many wondering if those safety protections were necessary in the first place.

The company isn’t alone in its cavalier attitude toward workplace hazards; workers are also more likely to take more and greater risks in this climate.  Even as companies diligently try to create more of an empowered approach to safety and improve their safety cultures, five years or more, of neglect for respecting hazards has greatly increased individual’s risk tolerances.  This increased tolerance for risk manifests in individuals doing things they might ordinarily have avoided.  When we think of individuals taking risks, it’s natural to think of front-line workers, but there are others taking risks whose faulty decision making is far more dangerous.  When crew chiefs, foremen, supervisors, and others whose decisions can have severe consequences for a large population the danger to workers becomes exponential.  A single flawed decision from an Operations leader can lead to catastrophic chain of events that kill multiple workers and become international news.

Denial Isn’t Just A River In Egypt

For many companies the problem just isn’t that bad. In the mind of some leaders the fact that nothing bad has happened yet is pretty good proof that it will never happen.  These organizations have been living in a collective denial (it’s difficult knowing that you are operating at heightened risk simply because you can’t afford to fix things and it’s comforting to believe that nothing is likely to happen, and if something DOES happen, it most likely won’t be serious.)  Unfortunately, risks tend to grow and unless there is some form of intervention hazards will continue to build until they reach a threshold where injury is all but certain.  And years of under-reporting borne from fear of job loss, corporate programs aimed at reducing “recordable” injuries instead of reduction of risk and the elimination of ALL injuries, has reinforced the idea that companies have things under control when, in fact, they may not.

Reversing the Trend

For most organizations the problem of legitimizing risk did not happen over night and unfortunately it needs to be rapidly reversed. One solution is a performance audit.  A performance audit is different from a compliance audit in several important ways. While a compliance audit is designed to determine the gap between what is legally required and the current state of an organization a performance audit goes far deeper.  The purpose of the performance audit is, in part, to assess the organization’s tolerance for risk and to present—often in jarring terms—the areas where immediate action must be taken.  Performance audits can open the eyes to hazards and unseen risks and reverse decades of incremental complacency and underestimation of hazards.  Performance audits are often pricey, and many organizations balk at the cost, especially as they are just beginning to limp out of the red and into the black, but these audits remain the best and most effective way of quickly breaking the trend toward legitimizing risk.

Filed under: Phil La Duke, Risk, risk management, Safety, Worker Safety, , , , ,

Safety Isn’t Immune to Hiring for Technical Skills and Firing for Interpersonal Skills

hire fired

By Phil La Duke

In my last column, The Safety Side, in Fabricating and Metalworking magazine ( I wrote about personality styles and understanding how a person prefers to be treated and tempering ones style of communication to meet another’s needs can make one not only a more effective safety professional, but a very effective professional of whatever career one chooses to pursue. I posted, as is my habit, a link to the article to the many LinkedIn groups to which I belong. The response was generally positive, but not universally so.  One reader posted”

“well i’m not quite sure to agree with what you are saying. i know first hand that most employers, supervisors, or just about most anyone does not like or like working with someone who speaks their mind. and i guess i fall under that category. i say what is on my mind and i don’t try and find precise words so feeling are not hurt or just misunderstood. it tends to piss people off, oh well that’s me and i’m not changing for anyone. i am very productive in any job/career i do though. ell i’m not quite sure to agree with what you are saying. i know first hand that most employers, supervisors, or just about most anyone does not like or like working with someone who speaks their mind. and i guess i fall under that category. i say what is on my mind and i don’t try and find precise words so feeling are not hurt or just misunderstood. it tends to piss people off, oh well that’s me and i’m not changing for anyone. i am very productive in any job/career i do though.”

I always appreciate it when people post comments, especially when they disagree (provided they can avoid attacking me personally, to which I typically respond in kind) and this was no exception. In this particular case, I was struck by how resolute the poster was in his position of “oh well that’s me and I’m not changing for anyone.”   I responded in part that if what he is doing is working for him then he should keep at it.  Maybe it is working for him, but many others who feel—and act—that way the poster does, find themselves limited.  These people seem to be offered far fewer advancement opportunities, pay raises, opportunities for plumb assignments, and tend to have worse performance appraisals. Often they limit themselves without even knowing it, and many who ignore differences in personality styles find themselves forced to work twice (or more) as hard just to achieve the same (or less) rewards as those who temper their styles to better relate to others who feel differently.  It’s easy for those who find themselves blaming the successful, branding them as suck-ups or favorites or some other pejorative euphemism for someone whose sole reason for success is undeserved and unfair.

The whole exchange reminded me of an adage Human Resources professionals have known for years “we hire people for their technical skills and we fire them for their (lack of) interpersonal skills.” I think this is particularly true in the field of worker safety, and this is a real problem.  Of course we need competent and skilled safety professionals this should go without saying.  Safety professionals must be skilled in a lot of technical areas and my intent is not to diminish this in any way. But there is a real need for safety professionals to be interpersonally adept—unless they can do their jobs in a way that encourages people to respect, and yes, even like them, they won’t be effective for long.

The Good The Bad and The Ugly

There are four types of safety professionals: safety professionals who are technically good and interpersonally good, those that are technically inept AND interpersonally inept, those that are technically skilled but interpersonally clumsy, and those that are technically incompetent but are politically adroit. I make no claim to what percentage of safety professionals fall in which category, but it behooves us all to try to increase the population of safety professionals who are both technically and interpersonally masterful.

Technically Gifted Social Toads

If there is any truth to the idiom “we hire for the technical skills and fire for the interpersonal skills” then there is likely a disproportionate number of safety professionals who are well educated and skilled in the requirements of worker safety. These people bulldoze their way through life and tend to alienate not just the rank and file, but also leadership. They find it difficult to get funding, have their initiatives thwarted at every turn and generally do their jobs in a haze of hostility and frustration. They start to see the organization—both front line employees and leadership—as the enemy; as impediments to the work that needs to be done.

Some safety professionals may scoff at the idea that their success is rooted in whether or not people like them, and may even seen popularity and safety as mutually exclusive (I have at least one colleague who, whenever he wants to avoid talking to someone on a plane simply tells the other passenger the he works in safety).  Many safety professionals who were drawn to the profession because of their love of rules and enforcement may find it difficult to understand the importance of having good interpersonal relationships with their constituency.  In the most extreme cases the safety professional is dismissed and replaced by someone more “reasonable”.

The Eighth Waste & Rain Man

I once worked with two different safety professionals who were universally seen as great guys—real sweethearts—but completely incompetent. One, who in an organization that had an aggressive continuous improvement program aimed at eliminating the Seven Wastes—[1] earned the unfortunate nickname, “the Eighth Waste” because of his simple-minded, albeit well-intentioned ideas, around the nature of safety. Rain Man, was a similarly well-liked and uninformed safety professional. Neither of the two were able to do much good, and when the organization began valuing the job a competent safety professional was supposed to do both faced with either rapidly bring up their skills to an acceptable level or be summarily dismissed.

Taking Out The Trash

Obviously, we can’t protect those in our number who are neither interpersonally skilled nor technically adroit, but they are out there. Fortunately, their numbers are rapidly declining.  There was a time that people who weren’t particularly skilled but who hadn’t committed an offense that would justify firing them.  These people were put into safety because —at least in the early days of our profession—safety was seen as a function that was impossible to screw up.  Many of these people were put into the position after washing out of the job that they were hired to do.  Most kept their jobs until they were allowed to retire.  Unfortunately, many of these retirees have decided to hang out a shingle and continue to ply their trade as a consultant.[2] So be fore warned, the drecks of our profession have not gone gently into that good night they have poorly made business cards, a crappy website, and are open for business.

[1] The “seven wastes” is a key component of the Toyota Production System, a continuous improvement system that forms the foundation of practically every world-class management system developed since. The Seven Wastes in TPS are defects/scrap, over-production, waiting, transportation, excess inventory, motion and excess processing.

[2] Before any of you retirees get all bent out of shape, puff up your chests and fire off a nasty missive, most retirees I know are more than competent professionals. In fact, when I was running Rockford Greene International  I relied heavily on skilled retirees to deliver training and provide my clients consulting services.

Filed under: Phil La Duke, Safety, Worker Safety, , , , , , , ,

The Rise of The Safety Extremist

By Phil La Duke

 Stop extremsim

“’Isms’ in my opinion are not good”
—Ferris Bueller, Ferris Bueller’s Day Off 

fa·nat·ic (fuh-nat-ik) noun

  1. a person with an extreme and uncritical enthusiasm or zeal, as in religion or politics.

ex·trem·ist (ik-stree-mist) noun

  1. a person who goes to extremes, especially in political matters.
  2. a supporter or advocate of extreme doctrines or practices.

I write provocative material.  I deliberately try to elicit a visceral response and take people to a place where they can explore their deepest held beliefs and question basic ideologies of safety. The latest in neuroscience suggests that our decisions or made and our ability to change reside deep in our subconscious beneath our defenses. When something strikes a nerve at that level it can be difficult to  have a rational conversation, but in general, if one can at least reconsider one’s belief set maybe its worth it.

Why is it important to reexamine our deepest held beliefs? Because the world is a dynamic place and if our beliefs are static we become increasingly out of touch.  If we cling blindly to our beliefs and lash out to anyone who threatens our worldview then we run the risk of becoming completely and dangerously out of touch with the realities of your profession and become a useless relic.  That should be career suicide, but sadly even the most out of touch hacks can usually find work based on their years and years of experience.  But what good is 40.2 years of experience if that experience consists chiefly of self-congratulatory affirmations and retreads of theories that are a century old.

Not that every new idea is a good one.  There is as much crap spewed by the idea d’jour pundits today as there ever has been. And just because an idea or theory is new doesn’t make it any better than conventional wisdom, but it’s important that any professional consider new ideas and emerging thought with an open mind.

That’s getting tougher and tougher to do in safety, owing to the rise in extremist thought in safety. The merest suggestion that we discard a safety truism is likely to to create nothing short of a public out rage.  Take for instance the response to Heinrich’s Pyramid.  A recent thread on the social networking site LinkedIn elicited 3,186 comments ranging from the intellectually bantering to the crackpot personal attacks. The thread quoted a recent assertion by EHS Today:

“Heinrich’s assertion that 88% of accidents are the result of unsafe acts has been dismissed as something he just made up. There was no research behind it whatsoever. “ and asked the simple question “What’s your opinion? And why?”

According to a recent article by Ashley Johnson in H+S Magazine a poll the magazine conducted found that 86% of respondents believed either completely or somewhat in Heinrich’s theories, while another 10% reporting that they weren’t familiar with Heinrich’s theories.  The article is a scathing indictment of Heinrich’s theories from experts who question his methods, his conclusions, and generally speaking nearly everything had to say.  The article was balanced by a half-hearted defense that the numbers were never meant to be statistical predictors (the were, by the way) and that Heinrich never blamed the workers (he did. In fact Heinrich was a devotee of eugenics and believed that one’s race and ethnicity played a factor in the likelihood that a worker would be injured or cause an injury to other.)

The What does this all have to do with extremism? Plenty.  This demonstrates that  despite a growing body of evidence that deeply held belief will hold sway.  This in itself is not extremism, but it does create an environment where extremists thrive.  Why do people cling to beliefs that are refuted (there are still people who deeply believe in fake photos and film footage of the Loch Ness Monster and Big Foot, even though the perpetrators of these hoaxes[1])? People tend to want to believe in what they’re doing and when people chip away at the foundation.

Its not just the Heinrich supporters who will lash out against any suggestion that doesn’t support their world view.  If you don’t believe me just publish something critical about Behavior Based Safety.  Within hours extremists and fanatics will marshal their forces and begin attacking you.  The problem has grown to such an extent that several editors of leading safety magazines actively avoid the debate more out of a desire to avoid arguing with fanatics than out of fear or intimidation.  But intimidation of the press is a goal of extremists everywhere —from Al Quida to the Ku Klux Klan to the Neo Nazis to the safety extremists—is to discredit, attack, intimidate, and generally silence the media which, if it is truly unbiased—will never buy there bill of goods.

Extremism Is Rooted In Fear

Let’s suppose you have 40.2 years of experience in safety where you served with distinction, and someone comes along and asserts something contrary to the foundation on which your entire experience is predicated.  What happens to your credentials and accomplishments and very identity as a safety professional when all on which it is built crumbles? People will protect their beliefs with a wildness typically reserved for mother grizzlies defending their cubs; they will make ugly personal attacks and seek to gather together like-minded souls close to them.

Extremism Loves Company

Social networking sites make it easy to reach out to a world of people. Some credit social networking with ushering in Arab Spring, but it also has a darker side.  Social Networking affords us the opportunity for the fanatics to get their ideas out to a sympathetic ear. Unfortunately, when it comes to safety, people are dying in the workplace while crackpots are postulating theories that are given equal weight with responsible theorists in safety.  I will leave the readers to decide which slide of the equation on which I fall.

[1] I’m speaking of the most famous loch ness monster photo and the actual film footage of a reputed big foot. The very people who first produced them convincingly disproved both of these.  If you want to believe in the Loch Ness monster or Big Foot God bless you, but what was the most compelling evidence has been disproven. And don’t even get me started on crop circles.

Filed under: Behavior Based Safety, Phil La Duke, Safety, Safety Culture, Worker Safety, , , , , ,

Misleading Indicators

trash graphs

“If you don’t know where you’re going, how do you know you aren’t already there?”

By Phil La Duke

Nearly every safety professional worth his or her salt has been told that he or she needs to look at both leading and lagging indicators; it’s good advice, in fact, it’s advice I’ve given many times in articles and speeches over the years.  But in my last post (two weeks ago—I spent the last week at a customer site and with the travel travails I just couldn’t bring myself to hammer out a post, deepest apologies to my fans and detractors alike) I questioned the value of tracking (not reporting or investigating, mind you, just tracking) near misses.  Well, as you can imagine the weirdoes, fanatics, and dullards came out in droves to sound off and huff and puff about things I never said (reading comprehension skills are at a disgraceful low these days).  Not everyone one who reads my stuff is a whack-job however, and some of the cooler heads insisted that tracking near misses was important because near miss reporting is a key leading indicator; it’s not…and it is, but like so much of life, it’s complicated.

Near misses in themselves aren’t leading indicators; they are things that almost killed or injured someone, and most importantly, they are events that happened in the past.  Not that anything that happens in the past has to be automatically counted out as a lagging indicator, but unless you still cling to the idea proffered by Heinrich that there is a strict statistical correlation between the number of near misses and fatalities, near misses are no more a leading indicator than your injury rate, lost work days, or first aid cases.  They simply tell you that something almost happened, and nothing more.  Now some of you might try to argue that if you have ENOUGH near misses you are bound to eventually have a fatality, but that does hold up to careful scrutiny.  Leading indicators are often expressions of probability, and like the proverbial coin that is tossed an infinite number of times, the probability of the outcome does not change because of the frequency of the toss.  If you were to toss the coin 400 times and it came up tails, the probability that the 401st toss would come up heads is still 50:50. So knowing that tracking near misses doesn’t really shed any light on what is likely to happen mean we should stop investigating near misses? Certainly not, but we really do need to stop thinking that the data is telling us things that it isn’t.  On the other hand, near miss reporting is indeed a leading indicator; if we accept (as I do) that when people report near misses they: a) are more actively engaged in safety day-to-day (and I suppose someone could argue that this doesn’t necessarily correlate) and b) the more the individual reports near misses the better he or she is at identifying hazards (again, this is a leap of faith, but  I believe in most cases this to be true.) So if you want to gage the robustness of your safety process I suppose the level of participation in near miss reporting is a good indicator.

The whole exercise got me thinking about indicators, and how often safety professionals (and everyone else on God’s green Earth for that matter) tend to be mislead by data because of the erroneous belief that the data is saying things that it isn’t.


Regular readers of my blog will recognize the concept of “causefusion”.  The term was coined by Zachery Shore in his book, Blunder: Why Smart People Make Bad Decisions which he uses to explain how people mistake correlation and cause-and-effect.  According to Shore, causefusion works something like this[1]: People who floss their teeth live longer than people who don’t floss or who floss irregularly therefore flossing your teeth makes you live longer.  It makes sense, right? Yes, except that it is wrong.  There are other possibilities for this correlation, for instance, isn’t it possible that people who are more interested in their health overall might be more likely to floss regularly? In a world where eager safety professionals provide data to Operations people who are hungry for quick fixes, Causefusion happens a lot; and it’s a real danger because it leads us away from the true causes of injuries and may blind us to real shortcomings in our processes.

Another way that we can be lead by indicators is the paradigm effect. When we think of the word “paradigm” we think of the definition, “a typical example” or “viewpoint”, but in the world of science paradigm there is another, lesser known definition, “a worldview underlying the theories and methodology of a particular scientific subject” Joel Barker pointed out how damaging paradigms (in the scientific sense) can be.  Barker believed that there were many instances where the worldview is so powerfully believed that any new evidence that does not support the worldview is ignored. Consider the dangers of ignoring critical new information relative to worker safety because you believe in a particular tool or methodology so strongly that you can’t even consider another viewpoint.

A third way that we mislead ourselves is when we see patterns that aren’t there.  This phenomena is wonderfully described in another book that I really believe is important to the world of safety, Why We Make Mistakes: How We Look Without Seeing, Forget Things in Seconds, and Are All Pretty Sure We Are Way Above Average by Joseph T. Hallinan. According to Hallinan—and the latest in brain research supports his contention—the human brain tends to see patterns even where there are none.  So in cases where safety professionals desperately seek answers and are under pressure to initiate action, the pressure to see patterns where there are none can be extreme.

Perhaps the most misleading indicator is one of the most common: zero recordables.  Too often safety professionals (and operations, as well, for that matter) see a trend of recordables as evidence that they are at far less risk of injuries and fatalities than they are.  This isn’t to say that they AREN’T at less risk, but there isn’t anything more than a correlation between the two elements; they might be good but they are just as likely to be lucky.

[1] The example is mine and mine alone, don’t get all huffy and bother Shore.

Filed under: Loss Prevention, Loss Prevention, Near Miss Reporting, Performance Improvement, Phil La Duke, Safety, Worker Safety, , , , , , , , , ,

A @#$# Storm In Texas

by Phil La Duke


“Who takes all the glory and none of the shame”—Elvis Costello


As safety professionals all over the civilized world continued to congratulate themselves on the swell job they’re all doing, someone had to piss on the picnic and blow up a fertilizer plant.  Thankfully, it didn’t get much news coverage what with the Boston Marathon, and who can blame the media? There won’t be a cherubic face on the Texas blast, and the glamorous backdrop of the Boston Marathon, and if there are stories of selflessness and heroism, we won’t hear them.  As for far as most people are concerned it’s just a bunch of dead, working class Texans, and what are 40 dead Texans more or less?

The bombings at the Boston Marathon had a lot to get us excited about, at an estimated 500,000 people involved in the event, it’s New England’s most watched sporting event, and it’s undeniably a big deal.  And this event had all the pageantry of an Ian Fleming novel before a parade of increasingly bad Bond film turned his work into cerebral pabulum. A big sports event is attached by rogue former USSR denizens, a small boy dies, a massive man hunt, gun fights, throw in a contrived love story, and Matt Damon and you have it all.  As I type this, I imagine there are numerous celebrities championing the victims of the Boston Marathon, collections will be taken, kudos heaped on the brave. Memes posted on Facebook from political whack jobs from both extremes blaming Obama for not doing enough or extolling him for doing so much better than Romney would have done. ”Repost this if…” as if anyone gave two tenths of a crap what anyone reposted on Facebook. I’m not denigrating the gravity of the situation, or of the heroics of those who ran to help when good sense should have sent them scurrying.  I know that at least a score of you mouth breathers are already so outraged that you struggle to read through furrowed brows and the labored breathing of the deeply offended.

Save it, yet again I am unimpressed and unswayed.  It’s been more than a week since the explosion in Texas and they still don’t seem to know exactly the death toll (up to 15 dead? When did news (I refuse to call the excrement that the modern hackneyed purveyors of “newsertainment” produce “journalism”) get so sloppy? We expect and accept fatalities in the workplace.  Sure the West, Texas explosion shook and alarmed business owners a bit, but things have already settled down, like mud sinking to the bottom of a sullied stream, clearing the waters of collective consciousness. Since the Texas explosion there have been industrial explosions at on  barge at a dock in Mobile, Alabama and at an Oil Refinery in Detroit, MI.

We’ve learned to expect and accept workplace fatalities as a cost of doing business. It sickens me that we chip away at worker safety in the name of case management—exactly what percentage of disability claims are in entirety fraudulent? And yet we treat all as if the are liars and cheats.  Politicians boldly decry the over protection of workers? When was the last time a politician died doing his or her job save for the assassin’s bullet, a bad liver, or the hyper excitement of a woman’s ministrations?

We sit and congratulate ourselves because injuries fall—we take all of the credit, we cheer and high-five, we proudly proclaim ourselves the saviors of the workingman. Yet when things go wrong we deflect any blame or accountability—“If the idiots would only follow the rules” “operations leadership doesn’t support me”.

We can’t have it both ways; these are two diametrically opposed standpoints. Either we save lives and butcher workers, or there is no relationship between what we do and whether or not people go home safe.  To paraphrase Yoda, (I won’t mimic the goofy Muppet syntax that Frank Oz compulsively adds to all characters making them sound like Fozzy Bear after he suffered a stroke) either you do it or you don’t, there’s no “try”. As my sainted, departed father used to tell me (after I defended a half-assed attempt with “I did my best”) “I can get a damned baboon in here to try hard, you get no points for being stupid.” That may seem harsh, but losing a loved one in an industrial explosion is also harsh.

Should we be more concerned about terrorism than we are about industrial explosions, the release of lethal gas into our communities, or wildfires that erupt from lumber yards? Well, certainly it’s not a contest, but WAKE UP people, the thing that will kill you is far less likely to be a mad bomber at a crowded public event than it is to be the chemical plant, grain elevator, refinery, or barge that explodes in your neighborhood. These are workplace accidents that aren’t just killing workers, they are killing first responders, and our neighbors, and people blissfully unaware of the dangers until it’s too late.

This isn’t an indictment of any particular industry.  While it’s true that the closer an industry is to harvesting raw materials the dirtier and more dangerous it tends to be

So safety professionals either step up or shut up. If you aren’t going to take responsible for these catastrophic breakdowns than shut your gaping pie hole about saving my life. If you did your best and this still happened than do us ALL a favor and get the hell out of the business. And for those of you, who are sitting there thinking that it can’t happen to you, know that those who suffered these disasters likely felt the same way.

Filed under: Phil La Duke, Safety, Worker Safety, , , , , , , , , ,

Wake Up: The Life you Save May Be Mine


By Phil La Duke

I am slowly migrating my posts from my other blog (the decommissioned Rockford Greene International blog that has since been renamed Worker Safety Net) to this blog.  But in the interest of not boring the socks off those of you who used to read both blogs, in each case, I rewrite and give a hard edit to these pieces. In short, while this may not be a entirerly new post I believe it is different enough to be worth the read.)

Tens of millions are spent reminding workers to work safely and be mindful of the many hazards they will inevitably face in the course of their workdays, but scare little focus has been cast on one of the biggest contributors to workplace injuries: the lack of sleep. The tentative recovery has employers gun-shy about hiring and as things pick up workers are increasingly fatigued as they try to do more and more with less and less.

Many of us worry about not getting enough sleep, but how harmful is the lack of sleep? Very. Consider the following:

  • Almost A Third Of Us Don’t Get Enough Sleep. According to Fox News, 30% of all American workers don’t get enough sleep (not on the job, of course). The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported last year that 50 million to 70 million American adults suffer from sleep and wakefulness disorders.
  • Lack of Sleep Makes Us Sick. According to USNews.comlack of sleep has been tied to mental distress, depression, anxiety, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol and certain risk behaviors including cigarette smoking, physical inactivity and heavy drinking.
  • Drowsy Driving Is a Major Issue. The most common workplace fatality is a traffic accident on the job. reports that 60% of adult drivers—about 168 million people —say they have driven while drowsy 37% (or 103 million people), have actually fallen asleep at the wheel. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), more than 750 people die and 20,000 more are injured each year due directly to fatigued commercial vehicle drivers, and an estimated 20% of vehicle crashes are linked to drowsy driving.
  • The problem is bigger than just highway safety, according to Joseph Hallinan, in Why We Make Mistakes: How We Work Without Seeing, Forget Things In Seconds, And Are All Pretty Sure We Are Way Above Average nearly a dozen pilots fell asleep in mid-flight between 2003 and 2007, and when medical students reported working five or more marathon shifts in a single month caused the chance of making a mistake that harmed a patient went up 700%.
  • The Economy Isn’t Helping. Apart from the financial problems that keep you up at night, the floundering economy has made the workplace more dangerous in other ways, for example, studies have shown that workers with more than one job were significantly more sleep deprived, so those workers forced to moonlight to make ends meet are more likely to be sleep deprived.
  • Sleep Deprivation Contributes to Poor Decision Making. According to Hallinan, even moderate sleep deprivation can cause brain impairment equivalent to driving while drunk AND has been shown to significantly increase an individual’s willingness to take risks.

    In effect, sleep deprived workers make more mistakes, poorer decisions, and take more risks…all things that have been repeatedly shown to increase the probability of worker injuries.

What Can Be Done About it?

The last thing that anyone needs or wants, is another thing for the safety guy to carp about, but all is not lost; experts at the National Sleep Foundation and elsewhere offers tips for getting a good night’s sleep:

  1. Don’t sleep in on weekends; maintain your weekday sleep schedules.
  2. Wind down. Experts recommend that people establish a regular relaxing routine to transition between waking and sleep. Soaking in a hot tub and then reading a book before retiring can greatly improve the quality of sleep one gets. Make your bedroom sleep friendly—dark, quiet, comfortable and cool.
  3. Use your bed for sleeping. Experts warn that watching television or working on a computer (and butchering chickens I would suppose) can impede your ability to truly relax when it comes time for sleeping
  4. Avoid caffeine nicotine and alcohol for several hours before bedtime. It makes sense that not ingesting chemicals that increase your metabolism and make you jittery right before retiring won’t help you get restorative sleep.
  5. Allow enough to time for sleep. Before you raise your hands in protest that you would if you could, consider that people who get enough sleep are significantly more productive than those who are deprived.
  6. Nap. A twenty-minute (no more) nap followed by exercise will make you feel refreshed and provide you a pick-me-up that will make you more productive.
  7. Finish eating at least 2-3 hours before your regular bedtime. The act of digesting food takes a lot of energy and things that require your body to work hard make it more difficult to go to sleep.
  8. Exercise regularly and complete your workout a few hours before bedtime. The goal of exercise (at least cardio exercises) is to raise your heart rate, increase your metabolism, and generally do the opposite of what you should do right before bedtime. But regular exercise several hours before bedtime will actually help relieve stress and relax you sufficiently so that you can get a good night’s sleep.
  9. Recognize that one of the most common reasons for insomnia is worrying about not getting enough sleep. Lying quietly with ones eyes closed can be very restorative, and while it is not as healthy as deep REM sleep, it can be a short-term solution to the sleep deprivation problem.

Safety professionals should raise the awareness of this problem among workers and share tips for getting enough sleep, especially on the night shift or for workers assigned to swing shift.  While there has been no conclusive link between a lack of sleep and mortality, studies have shown that employees who work swing shifts tend to have shorter life-spans.

There comes a point where telling people what they need to do to be safe outside the workplace is intrusive and inappropriate; expecting workers to get enough sleep isn’t one of them. When the worker has a lifestyle issue—whether that be substance abuse or insomnia—that emperils him/herself or others in the workplace it is within the company’s right to act.

Filed under: Phil La Duke, Risk, Safety, Worker Safety, , , , , ,



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